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‘Black skull’ consciousness: the new Swedish working class

  • Diana Mulinari
  • Anders Neergaard
Publiceringsår: 2005
Språk: Engelska
Sidor: 55-72
Publikation/Tidskrift/Serie: Race & Class
Volym: 46
Nummer: 3
Dokumenttyp: Artikel i tidskrift
Förlag: SAGE Publications

Abstract english

Many of the immigrant workers who came to Sweden from the sixties onwards, and their children, are stereotyped as ‘black skulls’. They are seen as silent, passive and mired in ‘traditional’ cultures, a stereotype that also pervades the trade union bureaucracies which are closely tied to the dominant Social Democratic Party. But interviews with activists in the FAI, a network of immigrant union activists, reveal a new ‘black skull’ consciousness in which the stereotype and insult of passivity have been turned on their heads. A new consciousness and analysis of Swedish racism has emerged — one which ultimately seeks to transform the whole way in which trade unions operate.


  • Gender Studies
  • trade unions
  • workers
  • activists
  • racism
  • immigrants
  • Sweden


  • ISSN: 0306-3968
Diana Mulinari
E-post: diana [dot] mulinari [at] genus [dot] lu [dot] se


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